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Role of International Organisation in Quality Assuranc


Author: Dr. Csilla Pesznyák


The radiation damages and the several radiation accidents highlighted the fact that the X-rays and radioactivity can not only heal, but improper use can be harmful. Over the years, several international organisations were developed, their purpose of the safety use of radiation. A lot of publications, recommendation have been reported and they organise several conferences and teaching course. Some of these organisations are:
1. International Electrical Commission (IEC) is founded in 1906 by the world’s leading organization for the preparation and publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
2. International Committee on Radiological Units (ICRU) - originally known as the International X-Ray Unit Committee and later as the International Committee on Radiological Units was conceived at the First International Congress of Radiology (ICR) in London in 1925 and officially came into being at ICR-2 in Stockholm in 1928. The primary objective was to propose an internationally agreed upon unit for measurement of radiation as applied to medicine.
3. National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) - NEMA is the trade association of choice for the electrical manufacturing industry, founded in 1926. NEMA provides a forum for the development of technical standards that are in the best interests of the industry and users, advocacy of industry policies on legislative and regulatory matters, and collection, analysis, and dissemination of industry data.
4. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) – founded in 1928 by the International Society of Radiology (ISR) and was then called the ‘International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee’, its present name received in 1950. The work of the ICRP helps to prevent cancer and other diseases and effects associated with exposure to ionising radiation, and to protect the environment.
5. World Health Organisation (WHO) – founded in 1945 by United Nation, WHO’s Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948.
6. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - it was set up in 1957 as the world's "Atoms for Peace" organization within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies. All publication of IAEA can use free of charge.
7. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) – founded in1958-ban, all AAPM Reports can downloaded free of charge from his homepage.
8. International Organisation foe Medical Physics (IOMP) - was formed in January 1963 initially with 4 affiliated national member organizations. The Organization has a membership in year 2010 of 80 national member organizations and 6 regional organizations.
9. International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) – the formation IRPA was in 1964. Hungary became the member state in 1966. Further objectives of IRPA encourage research and educational opportunities in those scientific and related disciplines which support radiation protection. The principles of radiation protection are included in the publications: ICRP 26, 60 and 103.
10. European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) – founded in 1980. One of the aims of ESTRO is develop and promote standards of education in radiotherapy and clinical oncology. The ESTRO Physics Booklets can download free of charge.
11. European Federation of Organisations in Medical Physics (EFOMP) was founded in 1980. The current membership covers 35 national organisations and 3 affiliated national organisations which together represent more than 5000 physicists and engineers working in the field of Medical Physics.
The European radiation therapy centres mostly use the IAEA recommendation as:
1. Dosimetry - IAEA „Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy: An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water”, TRS 398.
2. Radiation protection – International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Safety Series No. 115) and its new interim edition: Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards No. GSR Part 3.
3. Quality Assurance of treatment planning systems - IAEA, „Commissioning and quality assurance of computerized planning systems for radiation treatment of cancer”, TRS 430.



1. AAPM Report 55. Radiation treatment planning dosimetry verification. Report of Task Group No. 23 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), 1995, Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics.
2. AAPM Report 85. Tissue inhomogeneity corrections for MV photon beams. Report of Task Group No. 65 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), 2004, (Madison, WI: Medical Physics Publishing).
3. Adams GD. (1978) Formation and early years of the AAPM, Med. Phys. 5(4): 290-6.
4. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Technical Report Series 398. Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water. 2000 Vienna, IAEA.
5. IAEA Basic Safety Standards, Safety Series 115, 1996, Vienna, IAEA.
6. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Technical Report Series 430 Commissioning and quality assurance of computerized planning systems for radiation treatment of cancer. 2005,Vienna, IAEA.
7. Aletti P, Bey P. Recommendations for a Quality Assurance Programme in External Radiotherapy, ESTRO, 1995, Booklet no.2 (Brussels: ESTRO)
8. Leer JWH, McKenzie AL, Scalliet P, Thwaites DI. Practical Guidelines for the Implementation of a Quality System in Radiotherapy, ESTRO, 1998, Booklet no.4 (Brussels: ESTRO)
9. Mijnheer B, Olszewska A, Fiorino C, Hartmann G, Knöss T, Rosenwald JC, Wellewerd H. Quality assurance of treatment planning systems. Practical examples for non-IMRT photon beams. ESTRO 2005 Booklet no.7 (Brussels: ESTRO).

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